sTOPping Inflammation in its Tracks – Inhibition of Topoisomerase 1 Puts a Halt to Damaging Immune Responses to Infection

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Rialdi, A, Campisi, L et al. Topoisomerase 1 inhibition suppresses inflammatory genes and protects from death by inflammation. Science. (2016). The immune system is essential for defending our bodies against invading microbes. However, the magnitude of its response to infection must be tightly controlled. An overactive response can cause… Read more »

Armed with estrogens, female cells are better poised to fight the flu

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Peretz, J, et al. Estrogenic compounds reduce influenza A virus replication in primary human nasal epithelial cells derived from female, but not male, donors. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. (2015). It seems that the playing field is not entirely even between the sexes when it comes to… Read more »

Conserved molecular signatures help predict immune responses to vaccination in the young and elderly

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Nakaya, HI et al. Systems Analysis of Immunity to Influenza Vaccination across Multiple Years and in Diverse Populations Reveals Shared Molecular Signatures. Immunity. (2015). Currently, the most effective method to prevent influenza is vaccination with a seasonal trivalent or quadrivalent vaccine containing antigens of H1N1, H3N2, and one or two… Read more »

Neutrophil trails are essential for guiding T cells to the site of influenza infection

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Lim, K., et al. Neutrophil trails guide influenza-specific CD8+ T cells in the airways. Science. (2015). A well-functioning immune system is critical for protection against infection, and requires coordination of both the innate and adaptive immune response. The innate immune response, usually the first line of defense, consists of… Read more »

New Vaccine Backbone Increases Vaccine Production in Mammalian Cells

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Ping, J., et al. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses. Nat Communications (2015). The majority of influenza vaccines, including most annual seasonal vaccines and stockpiled vaccines against strains with pandemic potential, are produced in chicken eggs. These egg-based vaccines depend on a large supply of eggs, are… Read more »

Different Gene Activation in Response to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza May Explain the High Mortality Rate in Chickens, While Ducks Survive

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Smith, J. et al. A comparative analysis of host responses to avian influenza infection in ducks and chickens highlights a role for the interferon-induced transmembrane proteins in viral resistance. BMC Genomics (2015). The recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 outbreak continues to have significant economic impacts on the… Read more »

Dutch H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus does not cause severe disease in ferrets, nor is it easily transmissible between ferrets

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Richard, M et al. Low Virulence and Lack of Airborne Transmission of the Dutch Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N8 in Ferrets. PLoS One. 2015 June 19. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are lethal to wild birds and poultry, causing large-scale outbreaks among poultry flocks in Europe, Asia,… Read more »

Enhanced immune responses by skin vaccination in young hosts

NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Koutsonanos, D. G., et al. Enhanced immune responses by skin vaccination with influenza subunit vaccine in young hosts. Vaccine. 2015 Mar 03 Young children are one of the most susceptible populations to influenza and on average represent approximately 20,000 hospitalizations and over 100 deaths due to influenza in the… Read more »