NIAID CEIRS | Research Publication Commentary Martinez-Sobrido L et al. (2020) Characterizing Emerging Canine H3 Influenza Viruses. PLoS Pathogens. 16(4):e1008409. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008409. The NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) Network was established in 2007 in response to the 2005 HHS Pandemic Influenza Response & Preparedness Plan. The aim of the CEIRS Network, in addition to the ongoing influenza surveillance and… Read more »
An individual’s microbiome plays a big part in every aspect of their health. CEIRS researchers reviewed the implications the microbiome may have on vaccine efficacy.
Most people infected with COVID-19 only have mild or moderate symptoms, but some are much more severe. This study assessed immune response and clinical history from patients at two medical centers in order to compare type and severity of respiratory disease.
Previous coronavirus epidemics have included superspreader events as important mechanisms of disease transmission. This study, using data from contact tracing in Hong Kong early in the pandemic, demonstrates how different events and interactions facilitate or prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread.
CEIRS scientists compare lymphoid tissue and blood cell samples to determine origins of vaccine response. This research hopes to improve influenza vaccine efficacy by creating broad-spectrum protection against various virus strains.
A consistent theme throughout the COVID-19 pandemic is assessing risk to healthcare workers. In a study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, CEIRS investigators determined that Dutch healthcare workers who were infected in the early stages of the outbreak were likely infected through community spread and not in a hospital setting. Understanding risk of disease spread in hospitals, or nosocomoal transmission, is critical in mitigating future hazards to the population.
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, it becomes more important to determine the modes of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Understanding whether SARS-CoV-2 can spread through the air will enable public health experts to identify the appropriate control measures to reduce the spread of the outbreak. In a study published in Nature Communications, CEIRS investigators showed that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted between ferrets through direct contact and via respiratory droplets and aerosols between ferrets.
In a recent report published in Science, CEIRS investigators were part of a group of researchers in the Netherlands that investigated similarities and differences in pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in cynomolgus macaques (Rockx 2020). Prior to this study, little information on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was available. Investigators were aiming to characterize the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and compare findings to the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.
A global team of researchers, including investigators part of the St. Jude Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (SJCEIRS), show in a new study that ferrets are susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and that infected ferrets are able to transmit the virus to other ferrets through both direct and indirect contact (Kim 2020). The study, published in Cell Host & Microbe by Young-Il Kim, et al., describes an important new tool in the fight against the global COVID-19 pandemic.
Researchers around the world, including several CEIRS investigators, are urgently experimenting with various therapeutic approaches. Whether it is by repurposing existing antivirals, designing novel small molecule inhibitors, or exploiting the adaptive immune response, the common goal is clear: stop SARS-CoV-2 and its 29 proteins from overcoming humans’ cellular machinery.